Pakistan on world map
Pakistan on World Map [C] officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, [D] is a country in South Asia. This is the fifth densest country in the world, with a population exceeding 225.2 million, and has the second largest Muslim population in the world. Pakistan is the 33rd largest country by the region, which includes 881,913 square kilometers (340,509 square miles).
It has a coastline of 1,046 kilometers (650 miles) along the Arab Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south, and borders India to the east, Afghanistan to the West, Iran to Southwest, and China to the northeast. It was narrowly separated from Tajikistan by the Afghan wantj corridor in the north, and also shared the maritime border with Oman.
Pakistan is a site of several ancient cultures, including the Neolithic site of 8,500 years Mehrgarh in Balochistan,  and civilization of Indus valleys from the bronze age, the most extensive of old world civilization.  
The area consisting of a modern state of Pakistan is the realm of several kingdoms and dynasties, including achaemenid; Briefly that Alexander is great; Seleucid, The Maurya, Kushan, Gupta;  Umayyad’s Caliphate in the south, Hindu Shahi, Ghaznavid, Delhi Sultanate, Mugran,  The British East India, India Company Regulation, and the latest, the British Indian Empire from 1858 to 1947.
Driven by the Pakistani movement, which is looking for homeland for Muslims in British India, and election victory in 1946 by the All-India Muslim League, Pakistan obtained independence in 1947 after the Indonesian Indian Empire partition, who was awarded a separate country for the majority Muslims and accompanied by mass migration that are unmatched and loss of life.
  Initially, a British Commonwealth Domination, Pakistan officially compiled a constitution in 1956, and emerged as an Islamic Republic stated. In 1971, including the excretion of East Pakistan rushed as a new country Bangladesh after a nine-month long civil war.
In the next four decades, Pakistan has been ruled by the government description, although complex, generally changing between civil and military, democratic and authoritarian, relatively secular and Islamist. 
Pakistan on world map
Pakistan chose the civilian government in 2008, and in 2010 adopted a parliamentary system with periodic elections.  
Pakistan is a middle force, and has the armed forces standing sixth in the world. This is a nuclear weapons stated, and is ranked between the economy that arises and leads growth,   with a large middle class and rapidly growing.
  Pakistani political history since independence has been marked by a period of significant economic and military growth and political and economic instability.
Pakistan on world map
It is a diverse country ethnically and linguistic, with different geography and wildlife. However, this country continues to face challenges, including poverty, illiterate, corruption and terrorism.   
Pakistan is a member of the United Nations, Shanghai Cooperation Organizations, Islamic Cooperation Organizations, the Commonwealth of British Nations, South Asian Associations for Regional Cooperation, Islamic Military Counter-Terrorism Coalition, and Defined as Non- Ally Nato by the United States.
He maps showing Pakistan, a country located in the northwest of Indian continental children in South Asia. The official name of the Muslims is the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The Arabian sea brings the country in the south; It borders Afghanistan, China, India and Iran.
Pakistan occupies an area of 796,095 km², compared to this slightly larger than Turkey (783,562 km²) or a little less than twice the size of the state of California.
Pakistan is the most populated sixth country in the world with a population of 208 million people (data from PBO, 2018). The federal capital is Islamabad. The main port, the city center and the biggest economy is Karachi; The second largest city is Lahore. Other big cities of Pakistan are Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Multan, Gujranwala, Hyderabad, Peshawar, and Quetta.
The language spoken is Urdu, England (both official), Punjabi, Sindhi, and Pashto.
Pakistan appeared on August 14, 1947 from the majority of Muslims in the northeastern part of the United Kingdom of India. Initially, the country consisted of two parts of the former British British region; Pakistan was divided in 1971 when the East portion took off and became the Republic of Bangladesh.
Medan Pakistan is marked with flat indus flat (part of the indo-gangetic plains), crossed by the Indus River and its tributaries. Indus is the longest state river and essential water resources, but also causes floods and mud.
The Northeast Pakistan area of the Islamic capital of Islamabad was dominated by the Himalayas, known as Karakoram, the second highest mountain of the world. The highest peak in this country is K2 with 8,611 m; This is the second highest mountain on earth, located on the border between Pakistan and China in the Himalayas. This mountain is also known as Mt. Godwin-Austen, Chhibor / Qogir, and ketu / kecu.
Sandwiched between Arabs and Indian tectonic plates is the Iranian plateau; The Pakistani section of the plateau is known as the Balochistan plateau, part of the Eurasian plate. Balochistan is a barren desert and mountainous region in Southeast Asia.
Described on the map is the location of the following cities and cities of Pakistan (ordered by the province, provincial capital in parentheses):
Chitral, Mardan, Saidu, and Skardu.
North-West Ordinary Border Province or Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Peshawar)
Tanks, Bannu, Mardan, Chitral, and Saidu.
Azad Kashmir (Muzaffarabad)
The tribal area given federal (peshawar)
Bahawalpur, Dera Ghazi Khan, Dera Ismail Khan, Faisalabad, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Jhang Sadr, Mattress, Multan, Rahimyar Khan, Rawalpindi, Sahiwal, Sargodha, Shujaabad, and Sialkot.
Jiwani, Gwadar, Pasni, Ormara, Panjgur, Surab, Nok Kundi, Sibi, Chaman, Zhob, Dalbandin, Khuzdar, Belurbat, and Hoshab.
Jacobabad, Shikarpur, Hyderabad, Typical Mirpur, Nawabshaw, Khairpur, Lakea, Sukkur, Sanghar, Matli, Thata, Moro, and dice.
Early age and medieval
Main article: Indus Valley Civilization, Vedic Period, Empire Mauryan, Indo-Greece Kingdom, Gupta Empire, Empire Pala, Sikh Empire, and the Mughal Empire
The statue of the King of Indus Imam from Mohenjo-Daro.
Some of the earliest ancient human civilizations in South Asia come from regions that include today’s Pakistan.  The earliest residents known in the region were Soanan during the bottom paleolitic, including stone tools found in the Soan Punjab Valley.
 Indus region, which covers most of today Pakistan, is a site of several consecutive ancient cultures including neolithic Mehrgarh  and civilization of the Indus Valley of Bronze Age (2,800-1,800 BC) in Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro.  
Standing Buddha from Gandhara, Greek-Buddhist art, 2nd century century.
Vedic period (1500-500 BC) is marked with Indo-Arya culture; During this period Vedas, the oldest holy book associated with Hinduism, consisting, and this culture then became established in the region.   Multan is an important Hindu pilgrimage center.
 Vedic civilization developed in the city of Gandhāran Ancient Takṣaśilā, now a taxi in Punjab, which was founded around 1000 BC.    The royal and ancient kingdoms ruled this area: the Persian Achaemenid Empire (around 519 BC), Alexander Big Empire at 326 BC  and Maurya Empire, was founded by Chandragupta Maurya and extended by Ashoka Great, up to 185 BC.
 The Indo-Greece kingdom founded by Demetrius Bactria (180-165 BC) included Gandhara and Punjab and reached the largest limit under marker (165-150 BC), prosperous the culture of Greece-Buddha in the region.
 Taxuna has one of the universities and higher education centers in the world, which was founded during the final period of the Vedic substance in the 6th century BC.   Schools consist of several monasteries without large dormitories or lecture halls where religious instructions are provided individually.
 Ancient universities documented by Alexander striker forces The Great and also recorded by Chinese pilgrims in the 4th or 5th century CE.     
On Zenith, the RAI Dynasty (489-632 AD) Sindh ruled this region and the surrounding area.  The Pala Dynasty is the last Buddhist Empire, which, under Dharmapala and Devapala, stretches in South Asia from what is now Bangladesh through North India to Pakistan.
The Arabic Conqueror Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh at 711 M. The official chronology of the Pakistani government claimed this as the time when the Pakistan Foundation was placed Pakistan arrived in the 19th century. Initial medieval period (642-1219 AD) witnessed the spread of Islam in the region.
During this period, Sufi missionaries play an important role in changing the majority of regional Buddhists and the Hindu population to Islam.
 After the defeat of the Turk and Hindu Dynasty Shahi which regulates the Kabul Valley, Gandhara (Khyber Pakhtunkwa currently), and West Punjab in the 7th to 11th century, several consecutive Muslim kingdoms ruled in the region, including the Ghaznavid Empire ( 975-1187 CE), Ghorid Kingdom, and Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526 CE). The Lodi Dynasty, the last of the Delhi Sultanate, was replaced by the Imperial Mughal (1526-1857 CE).
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore
Mughal introduced Persian literature and high culture, building Indo-Persian cultural roots in the region.  In the modern Pakistani region, the main cities during the Mughal period was Lahore and Thatta,  both were chosen as the location of impressive Mughal buildings.  In the early 16th century, the area remained under the Mughal Empire ruled by the Muslim Emperor.  At the beginning of the 18th century, increasing European influence
The significant results of the efforts of the Jamaat-I-Islami and Ulama were the passage of the resolution of the goal in March 1949. Resolution of the goal, which contacted Ali Khan, the most important in the history of Pakistan, stated that “the sovereignty ended throughout the universe belonging to Allah SWT himself and authority
He has delegated to the state of Pakistan through his people because it was carried out within the boundaries prescribed by him was Holy Trust “. The resolution of the destination was included as an opening for the Constitution in 1956, 1962, and 1973. 
Democracy stopped by martial law which had been enforced by President Iskander Mirza, who was replaced by the Chairman of the Army, General Ayub Khan. After adopting the presidential system in 1962, the country experienced extraordinary growth until the second war with India in 1965 which led to the economic downturn and public disapproval of extensive scale in 1967. [
115] Control consolidation of Job Khan in 1969, President Yahya Khan had to deal with a great hurricane which caused 500,000 deaths in East Pakistan. 
The signing of the Tashkent declaration to end hostility with India in 1965 in Tashkent, USSR, by President Ayub with Bhutto (Center) and Aziz Ahmed (left)
In 1970 Pakistan held his first democratic election since independence, it was intended to mark the transition from military power to democracy, but after the East Pakstani Awami League opposed the Pakistani Peoples Party (PPP), Yahya Khan and military establishment refused to give up power over power. ,  [118
] Search operations, military crackdown in the Bengali nationalist movement, lead to the declaration of independence and the celebration of the release of the Bengali Bahini forces in East Pakistan,   which in Western Pakistan was described as a civil war compared to war Liberation. 
Independent researchers estimate that between 300,000 and 500,000 civilians died during this period while the Bangladesh government placed the number of dead people at three million,  numbers that are now almost universally considered too increasing.  Some academics such as Rudolph Rummel and Rounaq Jahan said both parties  committed genocide; Others like Richard Sisson and Leo E. Rose believe there is no genocide. 
Responding to Indian support for the rebellion in East Pakistan, Preemptive strikes in India by the Air Force, Navy, and Pakistani Marines triggered Conventional War in 1971 which resulted in the victory of India and East Pakistan to get independence as Bangladesh. 
With Pakistan surrendered to the war, Yahya Khan was replaced by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto as president; The country works to announce the constitution and place the country to the road to democracy. Democratic regulations continued from 1972 to 1977 – the era of self-awareness, intellectual defeat, nationalism, and national reconstruction.
 In 1972 Pakistan began an ambitious plan to develop its nuclear prevention capabilities with the aim of preventing foreign invasion; The first nuclear power plant in the country was inaugurated in the same year.   Accelerated in response to India’s first nuclear test in 1974, the accident program was completed in 1979. 
Democracy ended with a military coup in 1977 against PPP left, which saw General Zia-ul-Haq became president in 1978. From 1977 to 1988, President Zia’s initiative and economic Islamic initiative caused Pakistan to be one of the fastest growing economies in South Asia. 
While building the country’s nuclear program, increasing Islamization,  and the emergence of homemade conservative philosophy, Pakistan helps subsidize and distribute US resources to the faction of the Mujahideen against the Soviet Union intervention in the Communist Afghanistan.  Northwestern Border Province Pakistan became a base for anti-Soviet Afghan fighters, with provincial influential Deobandi
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